$P[RINCIPAL] contains the absolute pathname of the principal (initial $IO) device. $PRINCIPAL is an MDC Type A enhancement to standard M.

Input and output for a process may come from separate devices, namely, the standard input and output. However, the M I/O model allows only one device to be USEd (or active) at a time. When an image starts, GT.M implicitly OPENs the standard input and standard output device(s) and assigns the device(s) to $PRINCIPAL. For USE deviceparameters, it is the standard input that determines the device type.

For an image invoked interactively, $PRINCIPAL is the user's terminal. For an image invoked from a terminal by means of a shell script, $PRINCIPAL is the shell script's standard input (usually the terminal) and standard output (also usually the terminal) for output, unless the shell redirects the input or output.

GT.M provides a mechanism for the user to create a name for $PRINCIPAL in the shell before invoking GT.M. The environment variable gtm_principal, if defined becomes a synonym for the actual device and the value for $PRINCIPAL. $IO holds the same value as $PRINCIPAL. $ZIO in this case, holds the fully expanded name of the actual device. See “$ZIO” for an example of its usage.

GT.M ignores a CLOSE specifying the principal device. GT.M does not permit the SET command to modify $PRINCIPAL.